Prof. Dr. Katsuyoshi Nishinari
The History of the International Hydrocolloids Conference
The History of the International Hydrocolloids Conference
David J.A. Jenkins is an University Professor, and a professor in the Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Medicine, University of Toronto, a staff physician in the Division of Endocrinology, Director of the Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, and a Scientist in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital. He was educated at Oxford University. He has served on committees in Canada and the United States that formulated nutritional guidelines for the treatment of diabetes and recommendations for fiber and macronutrient intake under the joint US-Canada DRI system (RDAs) of the National Academy of Sciences. He also served as a member of Agriculture Canada’s Science Advisory Board (2004-2009) on the future direction of Canada’s agriculture and agricultural research. He has spent much time working with the food industry to develop products for the supermarket shelf and, for example, helped to initiate Loblaw’s (Canada’s largest supermarket chain) ‘Too Good To Be True’ and most recently their popular “Blue Menu” line of products ( for cardiometabolic health). His research area is the use of diet in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and diabetes. He has over 400 original publications on these and related topics. His team was the first to define and explore the concept of the glycemic index of foods and demonstrate the breadth of metabolic effects of viscous soluble fiber, including blood glucose and cholesterol lowering. His group developed the cholesterol-lowering concept of the dietary portfolio that has entered guidelines in many jurisdictions (e.g. CCS, Heart UK etc.). He is co-chair of the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium (ICQC) that promotes research and recommendations on the use of carbohydrate foods and their components. He believes in the therapeutic value of plant-based diets and their components and the diets that are advocated have to be environmentally sustainable and reduce the human footprint on the planet.
Hydrocolloids, Glycemic Index for Human and Planetary Health
Stefan Kasapis is a Professor of Food Sciences at RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. His research interests focus on bridging the gap that has emerged between advances in fundamental knowledge and direct application to product situations with a growing need for scientific input. His technological work secured in excess of eleven million USD in research grants and commercial contracts assisting the food industry to launch in the market novel formulations of fat replacers, oriental foods, minced fish products, liquid breakfast, high protein nutritional supplements for the elderly, and supporting the circular economy by repurposing food waste. He is recipient of the Food Group Junior Medal of the Royal Society of Chemistry for the best published work in Food Chemistry in the UK. Published in excess of 250 articles in learned journals in the field, edited 2 books and filed 9 patents with the food industry. Served at the Editorial Boards of Food Hydrocolloids, Carbohydrate Polymers and BCDF. He was the Chairman of the 9th and 15th International Hydrocolloids Conference held in Singapore and Melbourne, Australia. He features in the 2020 Stanford University ranking in the top 0.3% of scientists in the field of food sciences.
Inaugural Glyn O. Phillips Prize lecture: Protein-ligand interactions and controlled delivery for the design of fortified foods
Proteins are well known for their functional role as supporting materials in the physical structure of processed foods, assisting in the formation of a variety of gels, foams and emulsions. Additionally, they are utilised for their entrapping properties, bovine milk proteins, in particular, are well suited as protective excipients for bioactive materials with a wide range of applications in the delivery of natural bioactive compounds. Part of this presentation aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge in the control and measurement of the kinetics involved in the delivery of bioactive compounds from milk protein-based matrices 1.
In a similar vein, the fortification of convenience foods, including beverages, with additional dietary fibre from grains (mainly wholegrain oat and wheat) is also of growing industrial and consumer interest in improving nutrition and health 2. This is not least due to the high content of phenolic compounds present, particularly phenolic acids associated with natural insoluble fibres, thought to be beneficial to well-being by assisting in the prevention of chronic disease, including cardiovascular disease, by lessening problems such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and thrombosis. In commercial formulations, phenolic acids are found in the vicinity of milk protein chains that leads inevitably to molecular interactions. These interactions have been investigated extensively and are fairly well understood at low processing temperatures. Thus the molecular size of phenolic compounds, solution pH, temperature and ingredient concentration are the main factors affecting the mostly reversible, i.e. physical, associations that take place during processing and subsequent storage 3.
Although challenging to reproduce at the laboratory scale, industrial processing of liquid food products commonly incorporates a UHT step at about 135°C to facilitate long shelf-life at ambient temperatures. The widely practised treatment should also result in molecular interactions between protein constituents and phenolics but it remains underresearched. Recent investigations into such high temperature systems showed that the interactions might be chemical (covalent and irreversible) rather than physical (weaker and reversible) in nature 4,5. Therefore, the second part of this is presentation aims to provide insights and possibilities for further research into the effect on structural and functional qualities that high temperature protein-phenolic processing may induce.
Prof. Aiqian Ye gained his PhD degree at Massey University, New Zealand. He joined the Riddet Centre, Massey University in 2002. In 2005, Aiqian moved to Fonterra Research Centre. After moving back to Massey University in 2008, he has been working for Riddet Institute and School of Food and Nutrition, Massey University to present. Prof. Ye’s research focused on physical and chemical characteristics of milk components, interactions during processing, and functionality in food systems. His research experiences were to understand the relationships between structure, functional properties of proteins and fat in dairy products, to investigate the interactions of minerals (calcium and iron) with milk proteins and fortification of minerals in dairy products. His research also incorporated the characterisation of interactions between milk proteins and polysaccharides in solutions and emulsions. Professor Ye has broadened his research to investigate the behaviour of food structure during digestion and the influences of the structure and physical properties of food on the digestion and absorption in the body. Professor Ye has published over 170 peer-reviewed articles in international journals. He is the author of 10 PCT patents.
Gastric colloidal behaviour of milk protein as a tool for manipulating nutrient digestion
Abstract: Not only the structure of food before ingestion but also the structure that is formed during digestion play an important role in food digestion. The coagulation or aggregation of milk proteins under gastric conditions to form a structured clot or curd is a unique interaction between the food source and physiological secretion and action. The interaction can take place in various types of food, such as infant formulae, solid cheeses and emulsion-type beverages, all of which contain milk proteins, resulting in a variety of colloidal phenomena under gastric digestion, i.e. aggregation, flocculation/creaming, gelation and clotting. The protein composition, processing treatments and the presence of other food components influence the formation, the structure and the composition of the curd/clot or coagulum. These colloidal stabilizations or destabilizations in the stomach have an impact on the digestion of proteins, lipids and other nutrients, through controlling the kinetics of protein hydrolysis and disintegration of the formed structure. This presentation introduces our recent work on the dynamic in vitro digestion of proteins and fat from milk and dairy products with different treatments. The different processing and interactions between proteins in a milk protein diet cause differences in gastric emptying and have different rates of proteolysis by pepsin, as well as the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds contained in milk matrices. The digestion rate of lipid in intestinal digestion were related with the compositional profile of the gastric digesta, which was influenced by the coagulum structure and the gastric disintegration of the coagulum. This work highlights how various milk matrices can govern the fate of health promoting compounds during digestion. This understanding could be applied to manipulate the macronutrient delivery and digestion of food products.
dietary and gut health
Dr. Yong-Cheng Shi is a professor in the Department of Grain Science and Industry at Kansas State University (KSU). He received his B.E. in Chemical Engineering from Zhejiang University, and MS and Ph.D. in Grain Science from KSU. He worked for National Starch Food Innovation from 1994 to 2005. He has 17 granted US patents and more than 100 publications. He co-edited a book with Dr. C. C. Maningat on Resistant Starch: Sources, Application and Health Benefits in 2013. He was an Associate Editor of Cereal Chemistry from 2006 to 2013 and currently sits on the Editorial Board of Carbohydrate Polymers and the Advisory Board of Starch. Dr. Shi was the Belfort Lecturer at the Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Purdue University in 2015. He received Phil Williams Applied Research Award from AACC International (AACCI) (now Cereal & Grains Association) and was named AACCI Fellow in 2016. In 2021, he was awarded the Alsberg-French-Schoch Memorial Lectureship Award from the Cereals & Grains Association.
Comparison of Gum Arabic, Starch Octenylsuccinate and Corn Fiber Gum as Emulsifiers
Abstract: Gum arabic, octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch and corn fiber gum (CFG) can all be used as beverage emulsifier but they differ in source, composition, structure and performance, and labeling requirements in food. Gum arabic is a standard emulsifier used in beverage industry and widely used to stabilize flavor oils in soft drinks. The proteinaceous components in gum arabic (0.7-3%) or arabinogalactan-protein complexes play an important role in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. In comparison, the emulsion properties of octenylsuccinic (OS) starch depend on its degree of substitution (DS) and distribution of OS group as well as molecular structure of starch. In our group, we have developed technologies to make OSA modified starches with different molecular structures and distributions of OS group. Modified starches made by different processes give different structures and result in different emulsion performances. CFG extracted from corn bran using alkaline has been demonstrated to show superior emulsifying stability. We developed an improved, more cost effective method to extract CFG from corn bran. The extracted CFG also contained a small amount of protein. Partial acid hydrolysis combined with high-performance size-exclusion chromatography indicated that protein was covalently linked with carbohydrate portion in CFG. Compared to gum arabic, CFG was a more rigid molecule, indicating a shorter branching chain of CFG. The CFG we developed was able to emulsify a higher level of orange oil than gum arabic and the emusions were more stable. In the preparation of beverage emulsion, a weighting agent is normally added to the oil to increase its density. The effects of weighting agent on emulsion performance were studied and found to be different when gum arabic, OSA modified starch and CFG are used. For selected OS starches and CFG, stable emulsions may be obtained without a weitghting agent.
Keywords: gum arabic; corn fibre gum; octenylsuccinic anhydride modified starch; emulsion
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto and Principal Scientist & Medical Director at INQUIS Clinical Research. Dr. Wolever’s research centres on the effects of dietary carbohydrates on human physiology and metabolism. He has written or co-authored over 370 papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and written a book entitled: The Glycaemic Index: A Physiological Classification of Dietary Carbohydrate. In 1997, Dr. Wolever founded Glycaemic Index Testing, Inc. to provide confidential GI testing services to industry. To cope with increased demand and provide a wider range of clinical research services, INQUIS (formerly GI Labs) was formed in 2004. Dr. Wolever is married with 3 children and enjoys orienteering, cycling and playing the recorder.
Total Fibre vs Types and Sources of Fibre in Subjects with and without Diabetes: Role of Viscosity
Dietary fibre is an important short-fall nutrient with average intakes in North America being only 50-67% of recommended. Food fortification or fibre supplements could help fill the gap, but what sources/types of fibre should be recommended? This talk addresses the role of fibre viscosity on blood-glucose and -lipids in humans.
We found the glycaemic response (GR) of healthy adults after test-meals containing oat β-glucan (OBG) varying in dose and molecular-weight (MW) was inversely related to OBG viscosity, which, in turn, was determined by dose and MW. Results of a systematic-review and meta-analysis (SRMA) showed that OBG dose, OBG MW and the nature of the comparator significantly influenced the effect of OBG on GR. Indeed, 10-15 times more medium-MW (300-1000kDa) or low-MW (<300kDa) OBG was required to reduce GR compared to 0.2 g/30g available-carbohydrate for high-MW OBG (>1000kDa). Studies also suggest that the ability of OBG to reduce serum-cholesterol in healthy adults is related to viscosity.
The effects of fibre in diabetes were assessed by an umbrella review of published SMRA. All fibre types significantly reduced HbA1c by 0.3% (n=74), fasting-glucose by 0.70 mmol/L (n=74) and serum-cholesterol by 0.33 mmol/L (n=37), but the effects differed by fibre type and source. Non-viscous fibres elicited statistically but not clinically significant reductions in HbA1c (0.14%) and fasting-glucose (0.42 mmol/L), whereas viscous fibres elicited statistically and clinically significant reductions in HbA1c (-0.57%), fasting-glucose (1.00 mmol/L) and serum-cholesterol (0.55 mmol/L). Is it time to reconsider the use of viscous fibre supplements in the treatment of diabetes?
Dr. Youling Xiong is a food science professor at the University of Kentucky (1990-present). He is an expert on protein chemistry, functionality, and applications. His research focuses on biophysical characterization of meat and plant food materials, including rheology, microstructure, and oxidative stability. His recent works include the thermodynamic interactions between macromolecules and small compounds (proteins, peptides, polysaccharides, polyphenols, lipids, and cationic minerals) for structured and healthy food production. Xiong has mentored more than 70 graduate students and postdocs and published 320 refereed research articles and 30 book chapters. He has given over 140 invited/keynote presentations throughout the world. As a career achiever, Xiong has received numerous national and international awards, and is an elected fellow in IFT, ACS-AGFD, AMSA, and IUFoST. He currently serves as an associate editor for Food Bioscience and as an editorial board member in numerous other global scientific journals.
Nonthermal bond disruption to unlock the functionality of structurally complex proteins
The structural complexity and hierarchical association of subunits in muscle and plant proteins is an impediment to their functionality in food processing and preparation. Deliberate disruption of native structure and conformation of proteins by physical, chemical, and enzymatic methods proves effective to improve protein solubility and promote ordered interaction, cross-linking, and aggregation under appropriate ingredient and processing conditions. The resulting micro and nanoscale protein aggregates and particulates formed thereof can be highly conducive to interactive networks in hydrogels and viscoelastic oil/water interfaces in food emulsions. The application of nonthermal treatments, such as ultrasound, protonation-deprotonation based pH shifting, hydrogen peroxide, plant polyphenols, divalent cations, and their combinations shows promise to change the native protein structure, promote covalent or noncovalent associations, and significantly enhance the functionality of muscle and plant proteins and rheological behavior of finished food products.
Dr. Qi Wang obtained her PhD degree in chemical engineering from King's College, University of London, UK. She has been a research scientist with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada since 1998. Dr Wang’s earlier research was on the study of structure-function relationships of non-starch polysaccharides as dietary fibers. In recent years, her research was more focused on developing encapsulation technologies for the target delivery of bioactive compounds to food animals or bio-pesticides to fruit trees. In collaboration with other AAFC scientists, her research has resulted in a number of invention disclosures, patents, and over a hundred peer-reviewed papers. Her contribution to the microencapsulation technology has been well received by the poultry industry and recognized by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada by presenting her the Prize for Outstanding Achievement in Science (2021) for her leadership and role to advance and enhance agriculture and agri-food research in Canada.
Application of Food Hydrocolloids in Microencapsulation of Antibiotic Alternatives in Food and Agriculture Production
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance (AR) is one of the “Grand Challenges” globally. Use of antibiotic growth promoters in animal farming and agricultural production has contributed to the development of AR. With the rise in consumer demand for food products “raised without antibiotics”, the quest for using natural bioactive substances to replace conventional antibiotics has been intensified. Probiotics, bacteriophage, and essential oils are promising candidates as antibiotic alternatives; however, the lack of technologies to produce a sufficient amount of active components, and to deliver them to farm animals or plants, effectively and inexpensively, has limited their wide acceptance in agriculture practice. Effective protection and delivery of these bioactives to target sites is a critical step toward the success of such applications. Spray drying is a well-established technology suitable for producing large quantities of dry powders at a relatively low cost. However, heat involved in spray drying may lead to the loss of bioactivities. This presentation will discuss the use of food hydrocolloids as encapsulation wall materials for microencapsulation of bioactive substances by spray drying technology for targeted delivery to animal intestines as antibiotic alternatives or to plants as biopesticides
Dr. Armstrong is the Assistant Professor and Tier 2 CRC in the University of Manitoba. She has received her Ph.D/Medicine degree in the University of Adelaide, Australia. Dr. Armstrong has received Shaun Lamoureaux best MMSF operating grant – Manitoba Medical Services Foundation in 2021. She is the Founding member of Dayhoff Technologies
Rethinking dietary fibre in inflammatory bowel diseases: when something we thought was always good might not be good for all
Abstract: Studies support the beneficial effects of a high-fibre diet in the chronic and severely debilitating inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) however, benefits appear to be reliant on production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) through microbial fermentation. Unfortunately, many studies have focused only on the benefits of fibres, neglecting growing evidence that hallmark altered microbiome in IBD patients causes decreased levels of SCFAs and impaired fibre fermentation. The reported benefits for most IBD patients therefore, may not be relevant for all IBD patients, particularly when many patients describe intolerance of fibres. Our previous findings offered the first mechanistic evidence demonstrating that unfermented dietary β-fructans (inulin and oligofructose) can induce a pro-inflammatory response in IBD patients. Incubating oligofructose with whole-microbiota intestinal washes from non-IBD or remission IBD patients, but not from patients with active disease, improved fermentation and reduced pro-inflammatory responses. Fibre-induced immune responses correlated with microbe functions, luminal metabolites, and fibre avoidance. Here we aimed to expand on our findings and identify inflammatory and epithelial barrier responses to a series of dietary fibres isolated from common fruits, grains, and vegetables.
Dr. Kontogiorgos has received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in Food Science from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). A full scholarship was then awarded from the Greek State Scholarships Foundation for PhD studies in Food Science at the University of Guelph (Canada). After his PhD, he worked as an NSERC research fellow at the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (Canada). Following that post, he worked as an academic at the Department of Biological Sciences of the University of Huddersfield (UK) before joining the University of Queensland (Australia). Dr Kontogiorgos's research interests focus on the chemistry and physical chemistry of food macromolecules. Currently, he is working on the physical, chemical and technological properties of soluble and insoluble fibres extracted from agricultural wastes and plant proteins. Dr Kontogiorgos is Associate Editor of Food Hydrocolloids and Associate Editor of Food Biophysics.
Adsorption kinetics and dilatational rheology of plant proteins at the air- and oil-water interfaces
Abstract: Adsorption kinetics and dilatational rheology of plant protein concentrates at the air- and oil-water interfaces were investigated at pH 7.0 in 100 mM NaCl. Three interfaces (air, triglyceride and terpene) and four protein concentrates (soy, pea, mung bean and rice) were examined. The dynamic interfacial properties were monitored by axisymmetric drop shape analysis. Kinetic modelling of the early and advanced stages of protein adsorption was carried out using the Ward-Tordai and Graham-Philips thermodynamic approaches. Construction of surface pressure master curves revealed a pseudo equilibrium plateau for legume proteins of ~20, 12, and 22 mN/m at the air, triglyceride and terpene interfaces, respectively. In contrast, rice proteins have a lower capacity to increase the surface pressure at the oil interfaces (< 15 mN/m). Data modelling revealed that diffusion is mostly independent of the protein composition, but protein rearrangement at the interfaces was faster at the oil than at the air interfaces. Dilatational rheological measurements revealed more elastic films at the air than at oil interfaces, with the dilatational storage modulus reaching values up to 37 mN/m. The least elastic films were formed at the terpene interfaces, with storage moduli being < 25 mN/m for all isolates investigated. Lissajous plot construction revealed a strain-hardening behaviour of films upon compression and strain-softening on extension, the magnitude of which follows the order air > terpene > triglyceride. Overall, results show that botanical source and subphase composition are critical in selecting the optimum stabilisation strategy in multiphasic foods using plant proteins.
Dr. Ying Wu is an Associate Professor for the College of Agriculture, Tennessee State University. Dr. Wu's research interest is exploring novel materials, especially natural polysaccharides, from various agricultural sources to incorporate into different applications in food and environmental systems. Dr. Wu has obtained her MS and PhD at Department of Food Science, University of Guelph. She had studied and worked in Guelph for 15 years (1997-2012).
Since joining Tennessee State University in 2012, Dr. Wu has obtained multiple external grants from USDA-NIFA, NSF and NIH as a PI and Co-PI. Dr. Wu has been actively contributing to the professional communities, organizations and peer reviewed journals as a reviewer and an organizer.
Dr. Wu was recently appointed as the secretary of the Agriceuticals Subcommittee under the Agricultural and Food Division of ACS (American Chemical Society). Dr. Wu also serves as the secretary in the Organizing Committee for the 16th International Hydrocolloid Conference at Guelph, ON, Canada.
Her most recent publications (2019- to date):
Qu, F-F, Li, X., Wang, P-Q., Han, Y-H., Wu, Y., Hu, J-H., Xhang, X-F* (2022) Effect of thermal process on the key aroma components of green tea with chestnut-like aroma. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.12177.
Joaquim, A., Paul, O., Lbezim, M., Johnson, D., Faconer, A., Wu, Y.*, Williams, F., and Mu, R.* (2022) Electrospray Deposition of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Microparticles: Impact of Solvents and Flow Rate. Polymers 14, 2702. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14132702.
Syed, R., Ding, H., Hui, D., Wu, Y.* (2022) Physicochemical and functional properties of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein and non-starch polysaccharides. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre (28) 100317, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcdf.2022.100317. Wang, L., Clardy, A., Hui, D., Wu, Y*. (2021) Physiochemical properties of encapsulated bitter melon juice using spray drying. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre, (26) 100278, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcdf.2021.100278. Charles, P.R.A., Jin, T.Z., Mu, R., Wu, Y.*( 2021) Electrohydrodynamic processing of natural polymers for active food packaging: A comprehensive review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12827. Wang, P., Wu, Y.* (2021) A Review on Colloidal Delivery Vehicles Using Carvacrol as A Model. Food Hydrocolooids 120 106922, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2021.106922. Wang, L., Clardy, A., Gao, A., and Wu, Y* (2019) A comparison of antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties of Chinese and Indian bitter melons (Momordica charantia L.) Food Bioscience, 29:73-80. Chen, M., Wu, Y., Hou, G. and Du, X. (2019) Evaluation of different tea extracts on dough, textural, and functional properties of dry Chinese white salted noodle. LWT - Food Science and Technology 101:456-462.
Application of Yellow Mustard Mucilage in Encapsulation of Essential Oils and Polyphenols using Spray Drying
Abstract: This study has investigated the application of water-soluble yellow mustard mucilage (WSM) as a novel wall material in microencapsulation of essential oils (EO) thymol and carvacrol and polyphenols (PP). Thymol (25%, w/w), carvacrol (25%, w/w) and PP (50%, w/w) were encapsulated in WSM, maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA) at various mass ratios and core to wall ratios by spray drying. Results confirmed that the addition of WSM into the wall formula improved the emulsion stability, encapsulation efficiency and help modulate the targeted release of bioactive compounds. Overall, the formula B with WSM-MD-GA at the ratio of 2/2/5 (w/w/w) with core to wall ratio of 1:5 showed the best encapsulation performance. The emulsion has maximum stability with zeta potential of -41.5 ± 1.7 mV and highest viscosity 0.032 ± 0.04 mPa.s at the shear rate 100 s-1. The Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer indicates that bioactive compounds have been entrapped physically without adverse reaction with wall materials. The scanning electron microscopy results show that microparticles are spherical particle with less dents and have an average particle size 3.11 μm. The highest encapsulation efficiency 91% and prolonged releasing time were achieved, where 72.7% of EOs and PP were delivery to the lower section of intestinal tract. The release kinetic of EOs and PP fitted well to the Rigter Peppas model (R2=0.991), of which the erosion is the dominant mechanism. WSM could be utilized as a superior wall material to exert synergistic effects on the encapsulation of bioactive ingredients for related food, feed and pharmaceutical industries.